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Authors: No authors specified.
Date: May 30, 1854
The Kansas territorial seal supposedly was engraved by Robert Lovett of Philadelphia from a design developed by Andrew H. Reeder, the first Territorial Governor of Kansas. Encircling the border of the two-inch brass die is the text, "SEAL OF THE TERRITORY OF KANSAS / ERECTED MAY 30, 1854." The face features a pioneer holding a rifle and hatchet opposite Ceres (the goddess of agriculture) who stands next to a sheaf of grain. At their feet lie a tree and the axe that felled it. Between these two figures is a shield with a plow in the top compartment and a hunter stalking a buffalo below. Above the shield is a banner reading, "POPULI VOCE NATA." This Latin motto has been translated to read "Born by the voice of the people" or "Born of the popular will." The motto speaks directly to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, creating the territory and establishing popular sovereignty whereby voting residents would decide if Kansas became a slave or free state.
Keywords: Agricultural implements; Agriculture; Kansas Nebraska Act; Kansas Territory; Objects; Popular sovereignty; Reeder, Andrew H. (Andrew Horatio), 1807-1864; Territorial government
Letter, W. A. Gorman to Speaker of the House of Reps [Minnesota Territory]
Authors: Phillips, Wendell
Date: February 18, 1856
In response to a January 22, 1856, appeal from free-state leaders in Kansas, the governor of Minnesota Territory, Willis A. Gorman (St. Paul, February 18, 1856), conveyed the appeal to his territory's House of Representatives and encouraged Minnesota officials to follow a policy of "Non intervention." Governor Gorman refused to recognize Lane and Robinson as "officers in the Territory of Kansas, under any authority of the laws of the United States or of that Territory."
Keywords: Border ruffians; Free State Party; Free state movement (see also Topeka Movement); Gorman, Willis A.; Lane, James Henry, 1814-1866; Miller, Josiah; Minnesota; Missouri; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Topeka Movement (see also Free state movement)
Letter, [I. Sabin] to Chad Kellogg
Authors: Sabin, I.
Date: August 8, 1856
I. Sabin wrote to Chad Kellogg regarding real-estate transactions and troubles along the Missouri-Kansas border. Sabin, the commander of a 40-man company against pro-slavery forces, described the amount of firearms needed by each fighting man and his lack of money with which to purchase them. The letter is written on a printed circular "Appeal of Kansas to the Voters of the Free States," which enumerates various offenses done to free state men, focusing particularly on the contested election of 1856.
Keywords: Barber, Thomas W.; Brown, Frederick; Buford, Jefferson; Free state perspective; Guns; Kellogg, Chad; Leavenworth County, Kansas Territory; Leavenworth, Kansas Territory; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Sabin, I.; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Sharps rifles; Shawnee County, Kansas Territory; Topeka, Kansas Territory; Wakarusa War, November-December 1855; Weapons (see also Guns)
Pamphlet, Defence of Kansas
Authors: Beecher, Henry Ward
This pamphlet, written by an impassioned Henry Ward Beecher, spoke vehemently against permitting slavery in Kansas Territory. Beecher excerpted the "Act to punish offenses against slave property", written by the first session of the Territorial Legislature, to the free state supporter the "Bogus Legislature", citing the Act as among " the laws of armed scoundrels".
Keywords: Antislavery perspective; Beecher, Henry Ward; Bogus legislature; Free state support; Kansas Territory. Legislature - Pawnee/Shawnee Mission; Popular sovereignty; Violence
Letter, draft of, written by Amos Lawrence for Sara Robinson
Authors: Lawrence, Amos Adams; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911
According to Frank W. Blackmar, who reprinted this document in the appendix of his book, The Life of Charles Robinson (1901), it was "a draft of a letter sent by Amos A. Lawrence to be re-written and signed by Mrs. Robinson and addressed to Mrs. Lawrence, [a "relative" of President Pierce and] the mother of Amos A. Lawrence. The letter," which concerns Charles Robinson's imprisonment (May 10-Sept. 10, 1856 ) in K.T., was sent by Mrs. Lawrence to Mrs. Pierce, wife of the President who gave it to the President to read."]
Keywords: Abolitionists; Atchison, David Rice, 1807-1886; Bogus legislature; Election fraud; Free state cause; Lawrence, Amos Adams, 1814-1886; Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869; Popular sovereignty; Robinson, Charles, 1818-1894; Robinson, Sara T. L. (Sara Tappan Lawrence), 1827-1911; Shannon, Wilson, 1802-1877; Treason
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