Social Life and Customs
Berneking, Carolyn, editor. “A Look at Early Lawrence: Letters From Robert Gaston Elliott.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 43 (Autumn 1977): 282-296. A founder, along with Josiah Miller, of Kansas Free State newspaper (1854), Elliott wrote these letters to his sister and fiancé, both back in Indiana, between May 8, 1857, and February 28, 1866.
Bisbey, J. M., et al. “Pioneering in Wabaunsee County.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 594-613. A collection of papers focusing on transportation, the Santa Fe Trail, the land office, militia service, and many routine activities of 1850s and 1860s settlers.
Butler, Pardee. Personal Recollections of Pardee Butler, with Reminiscences by His Daughter, Mrs. Rosetta B. Hastings, and Additional Chapters by Eld. John Boggs and Eld. J. B. McCleery. Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard Publishing Co., 1889. A frontier minister, Butler first came to Kansas Territory in 1855 and here, via his daughter, provides his own story and the remembered history of other major territorial events.
Caldwell, Martha B. “When Horace Greeley Visited Kansas in 1859.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 9 (May 1940): 115-140. The article includes long passages from Greeley's letters to his New York Tribune describing the territory in May 1859; among other things, Greeley attended the Kansas Republican Party’s organizational convention in Osawatomie.
Dolbee, Cora. “The First Book on Kansas: The Story of Edward Everett Hale's Kanzas and Nebraska.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 2 (May 1933): 139-181. A 256-page volume published in Boston (September 1854) less than six months after opening of territory.
Dolbee, Cora. “The Second Book on Kansas: An Account of C. B. Boynton and T. B. Mason's A Journey Through Kansas; With Sketches of Nebraska.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 4 (May 1935): 115-148. Published in Cincinnati, 1855; like the first, essentially propaganda for free-state settlement.
Dolbee, Cora. “The Third Book on Kansas: An Interpretation of J. Butler Chapman's History of Kansas and Emigrant's Guide.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 8 (August 1939): 238-278. Published in Akron, Ohio (January 1855), this slim, 116-page volume is unusual in its presentation of both sides in Kansas controversy; story of author's observations as participant in settlement process.
"Letters of John and Sarah Everett, 1854-1864: Miami County Pioneers.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 8 (February 1939): 3-34; and three addional parts: 8:143-174, 279-310, and 350-383. The correspondence reflects on frontier life and the tumultuous political events involving two reform minded New Yorkers who settled near Osawatomie.
Francis, Clara. “The Coming of Prohibition to Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1919-1922 15 (1922): 192-227. The examination starts with developments from the first territorial prohibitory laws to constitutional prohibition of 1880.
Gambone, Joseph G. “Starving Kansas: The Great Drought and Famine of 1859-60.” American West 8 (July 1971): 30-35. Although most historians had focused on Kansas’s political turmoil, it was the other “scourge”—severe drought and famine of 1859-1860—that “nearly depopulated the region”—“Starving Kansas” replaced “Bleeding Kansas.” Much attention given to the personal efforts of Thaddeus Hyatt, William F. M. Arny, and Samuel C. Pomeroy.
Greeley, Horace. An Overland Journey from New York to San Francisco in the Summer of 1859. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. The celebrated editor of the New York Tribune took his own advice in 1859 and traveled, mostly by stagecoach, across the western United States; the reports he made of this experience became An Overland Journey, first published in New York in 1860, which contains several lengthy letters written from and about Kansas Territory.
Griffin, C. S. “The University of Kansas and the Years of Frustration, 1854-1864.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 32 (Spring 1966): 1-32. From his book length history of K.U., this article covers the decade before the university became a state school and its New England/Free-state origins.
Hickman, Russell K. “A Little Satire on Emigrant Aid: Amasa Soule and the Descandum Kansas Improvement Company.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 8 (November 1939): 342-349. Founded in November 1854, the “Descandum” Kansas Improvement Company was “a burlesque upon the Kansas mania then prevalent” throughout New England; its only activity was “the sending of Soule to Kansas; the article includes the company’s constitution and the “Kansas Letter of Amasa Soule.”
Hinton, Richard J. “Pens that Made Kansas Free.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 371-382. Himself an early journalist and participant in the territorial struggles, Hinton discussed national as well as Kansas editors who vigorously worked for a free state.
Hutchinson, William. “Sketches of Kansas Pioneer Experience.” Kansas Historical Collection 7 (1901-1902): 390-410. Hutchinson, an early Lawrence settler and free state activist, concentrates on his territorial experiences.
"Letters of Hugh M. Moore, 1856-1860.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 10 (May 1941): 115-123. With his brother J. Frank Moore, Hugh Moore, as real estate salesman and speculator, removed from Pennsylvania to Topeka in 1857.
Lovejoy, Julia Louisa. “ ‘Letters From Kanzas.’ ” Kansas Historical Quarterly 11 (February 1942): 29-44. The four letters reprinted here describe the Lovejoys’—Julia Louisa (1812-1882) and Rev. Charles H.—journey west to their initial settlement at Manhattan; originally published in Independent Democrat, Concord, New Hampshire, they are dated March 13 to August 1, 1855.
Lovejoy, Julia Louisa. “Letters of Julia Louisa Lovejoy, 1856-1864: Part One, 1856.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 15 (May 1947): 127-142; four additional parts: “Part Two, 1857,” 15 (August 1947): 277-319; “Part Three, 1858,” 15 (November 1947): 368-403; “Part Four, 1859,” 16 (February 1948): 40-75; and “Part Five, 1860-1864,”16 (May 1948): 175-211. After a relatively short stay in the Manhattan area, the Lovejoys moved to Douglas County in 1856 from where Lovejoy continued her regular correspondence with the Independent Democrat, Concord, New Hampshire, and several other newspapers back east.
Malin, James C. “Emergency Housing at Lawrence, 1854.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 21 (Spring 1954): 34-49. Includes an early sketch of Lawrence (“J. E. Rice’s “Lawrence, Kansas, A.D. 1854-55”) and its built environment, along with some lengthy, contemporary quotations about housing types and materials.
Malin, James C. “Housing Experiments in the Lawrence Community, 1855.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 21 (Summer 1954):95-121. In this essay, Malin goes beyond the “emergency” stage to examine the “next phase” of house building in Lawrence, focusing on the cultural differences of the settlers, their architectural traditions, and the limitations and opportunities of the geographical setting.
Meredith, William John. “The Old Plum Grove Colony: In Jefferson County, 1854-1855.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 7 (November 1938): 339-375. This community of settlers, originally from the upper South, moved from Clay County, Missouri, to “a new Promised Land” in Kansas Territory that offered “room enough for generations to come.”
Moffatt, Isaac. “The Kansas Prairie: Or, Eight Days on the Plains.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 6 (May 1937): 147-174. The author’s account of an 1859 trip to Kansas from Philadelphia.
Peterson, John M., editor. “From Border War to Civil War: More Letters of Edward and Sarah Fitch, 1855-1863, Part I.” Kansas History 20 (Spring 1997): 2-21; “. . . Part II,” 20 (Summer 1997): 68-85. Kansas History first published the “Letters of Edward and Sarah Fitch” in the spring and summer of 1989; an additional cache of letters, shedding light on “many of the ordinary trials and successes of settlers in a strange and newly-settled land” and revealing much about political machinations in the troubled Kansas Territory, are presented here.
Simons, W. C. “Lawrence Newspapers in Territorial Days.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 325-339. The first papers were Herald of Freedom and Kansas Free State, October 1854.
Snow, F. H. “The Beginnings of the University of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 70-75. One of the college’s first educational leaders discusses its background from 1855 to "opening of the university, September 12, 1866."
Speer, John. “Incidents of the Pioneer Days.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1891-1896 5 (1896): 131-141. Speer, an important free-state leader and editor in Lawrence, Kansas Territory, himself, Speer concentrates on events of the territorial era, including a statement on the Leavenworth Constitution.
Stern, A. Kenneth, and Janelle L. Wagner. “The First Decade of Educational Governance in Kansas, 1855-1865.” Kansas History 24 (Spring 2001): 36-53. Common or public school education has long been important to Americans, but they know little about its; here this issue is explored for the territory and state of Kansas.
Whitfield, Steven. Kansas: Obsolete Notes and Scripts. N.p.: Krause Publications, 1980. Details currency issued by banks within the territory.