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Abing, Kevin J. “Before Bleeding Kansas: Christian Missionaries, Slavery, and the Shawnee Indians in Pre-Territorial Kansas, 1844-1854.” Kansas History 24 (Spring 2001): 54-70. Abing argues that “men of God,” such as Thomas Johnson, who labored to “civilize” the Shawnees, unleashed and perpetuated sectional turmoil among the Indians in their charge; they inadvertently laid the groundwork for Bleeding Kansas.

Coffin, William H. “Settlement of the Friends in Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 322-361. Quaker settlement during the territorial period is the focus here.

Currey, Cecil. “Quakers in `Bleeding Kansas'.” Friends History Association Bulletin 50 (Autumn 1961): 96. This article was based on Currey’s 1946 University of Kansas master's thesis.

Harrell, David Edwin, Jr. “Pardee Butler: Kansas Crusader.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 34 (Winter 1968): 386-408. Born in New York and raised in Ohio, Butler (1816-1888) was a Disciples of Christ minister who moved to Kansas Territory in the spring of 1855 to work for the free-state cause, as well as to acquire some cheap land.

Haupt, William Henry. “History of the American Church, Known in Law as the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the State of Kansas.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 353-402. A history of the diocese from 1837-1869.

Hickman, Russell K. “Lewis Bodwell, Frontier Preacher: The Early Years.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 12 (August 1943): 269-299; concluded, 12 (November 1943): 349-365. Religion and the Congregational church were a vital element in the territorial struggle from its founding at Lawrence in 1854; Bodwell (1827-1894) was commissioned by the denomination in 1856 to establish an independent Topeka congregation, where served until 1860.

Howard, Victor B. “Presbyterians, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Election of 1856.” Journal of Presbyterian History 49 (Summer 1971): 133-156. Whether New School and Old School, most churchmen sought to steer clear of sectional issues, but many believed “the peculiar institution suppressed freedom of speech, press, and religious expression wherever it existed”; thus, New School Presbyterians tended to support “the Republican Party’s position of opposing any expansion of slavery in the territories.

"Letters of New England Clergymen.” Kansas Historical Collections 2 (1879-1880): 193-202. Includes a listing of the letters in Kansas State Historical Society holdings donated by Emigrant Aid Company.

Lindquist, Emory, editor. “The Letters of the Rev. Samuel Young Lum, Pioneer Kansas Missionary, 1854-1858.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 25 (Spring 1959): 39-67; Part II, 25 (Summer 1959): 172-196. A Congregational minister commissioned by American Home Missionary Society (recipient of these letters), Lum had close ties to New England Emigrant Aid Company and helped start Lawrence and Topeka churches.

Lindquist, Emory. “Religion in Kansas During the Era of the Civil War.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 25 (Autumn 1959): 313-333; concluded, 25 (Winter 1959): 407-437. As Lindquist reminds us, “religion played a vital role in a time of uncertainty, insecurity, and strife,” so not surprisingly, as he demonstrates for the years 1854-1865, it was a major force in early Kansas.

McLoughlin, Virginia, editor. “Establishing a Church on the Kansas Frontier: The Letters of the Rev. O. L. Woodford and His Sister Henrietta, 1857-1859.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 37 (Summer 1971): 153-191. Letters to American Home Missionary Society, family and friends, and eastern newspapers; mostly from Grasshopper Falls (later Valley Falls).

Rice, Cyrus R. “Experiences of a Pioneer Missionary.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 298-318. The author recounts his work and acquaintances in Kansas Territory while serving as Methodist Episcopal missionary to Pottawatomies, 1855-1860.

Ross, Edith Connelley. The Old Shawnee Mission: The Pioneer Institution of Christian Civilization in the West. Topeka, Kans.: State Printing Plant, 1928.

SenGupta, Gunja. “Servants for Freedom: Christian Abolitionists in Territorial Kansas, 1854-1858.” Kansas History 16 (Summer 1993): 200-213. Focuses on the beliefs and work of a handful of “radical” abolitionist missionaries affiliated with the American Missionary Association.

Speer, John. “Patriotism and Education in the Methodist Church.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 494-500. Accounts of early Methodist contacts in the Kansas area by an early Lawrence journalist and free-state activist.

Spencer, Rev. Joab. “The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Kansas--1854 to 1906.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 135-182. An early minister examines the origins of “Church South” organized in 1845 and its subsequent work in Kansas with a brief references to many of its ministers in the territory and state.

Stone, Rev. Hiram. “Memoirs of a Pioneer Missionary and Chaplain in the United States Army.” Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 319-344. A Protestant Episcopal missionary in and around Leavenworth, 1856-1868.

Woods, Fred E., and Melvin L. Bashore. “On the Outskirts of Atchison: The Imprint of Latter-day Saint Transmigration at Mormon Grove.” Kansas History 25 (Spring 2002): 38-51. The authors recount an interesting story of several thousand Mormon emigrants who, en route to Utah in the mid-1850s, “found a hospitable home on the Kansas side of the Missouri River. In the main, it is the story of indulgence, of giving and receiving between two very different communities of frontier people.”


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